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Unit 2.1

Science and Philosophy

What has been the impact of science and philosophy on Islamic religious thought?

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Learners should have the opportunity to discuss issues related to the Islamic contribution to science and philosophy, including:

• the role of scientific learning in the medieval period and its contributions to modern science

• religious arguments encouraging the study of science and philosophy

• the impact of science and philosophy on religious thought in Islam


Whosoever thinks that to engage in a disputation for refuting such a theory is a religious duty harms religion and weakens it. For these matters rest on demonstrations, geometrical and arithmetical, that leave no room for doubt.

Ibn Rushd (Averroes) 

Ignorance leads to fear, fear leads to hatred, and hatred leads to violence. This is the equation.



To what extent would al-Ghazali have been satisfied with Ibn Rushd’s approach to the relationship between religion and philosophy

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